This article contains general information about the Earth’s upper mantle. This article discusses the methods for studying the internal structure of the upper mantle of the Earth. The author gives arguments in favor of the fact that the study of the internal structure of the upper mantle of Earth is an extremely important and urgent task. For more information about the Earth’s upper mantle can be found on the website http://www.virtualuppermantle.info.
Earth’s upper mantle
Earth’s upper mantle is a layer with a capacity of up to 600 kilometers, which lies between the Earth’s crust and lower mantle of Earth. The upper boundary that separates the upper mantle of the Earth’s crust – it is a Mohorovichich boundary (Moho). Moho boundary is located at a depth of 5 to 70 kilometers from the Earth’s surface. The lower boundary that separates the upper and lower mantle – it is a transition zone. The is located in the depth interval 400 – 650 kilometers from the Earth’s surface.
Physical and chemical processes
Physical and chemical processes taking place in the Upper mantle of the Earth, have a great and often decisive influence in many geodynamic, geophysical, geochemical phenomena observed at the Earth’s surface. In the past two decades, global plate tectonics (Mobilism) has been widely accepted in the scientific community. And it could be argued that this theory is the paradigm of our time. From the standpoint of Mobilism explains many geodynamic, geological, geophysical, geochemical phenomena issues earthquake prediction, the distribution of mineral resources. But the cornerstone of Plate tectonics – the reason the movement of the plates. And a source of energy for the movement of the plates, and the substrate on which the plates “float” on the modern, are located in the upper mantle of the Earth. Therefore, the study of the Upper mantle – it is a very urgent task.
Seismology, Gravimetry, Geothermal, Geomagnetism.
The direct penetration to great depths inside the Earth – a difficult task. The level of complexity of the task can be represented graphically, if we compare the achievements in space surrounding the Earth and in the development of the depths of the Earth itself. In the space mission next year are manned flights to Mars and Venus. In the development of Terrestrial depths of humanity to overcome the first ten kilometers. And the upper mantle of the earth lies much deeper. Therefore, a major supplier of information about the Earth’s upper mantle are the geophysical methods of research such as Seismology, Gravimetry, Geothermal, Geomagnetism. Information provided by geophysical methods, is indirect. That is, it can not be taken in hand, as a model species, and the knock on him a hammer. The data of all geophysical methods should be studied in conjunction. The geophysical data have to compare, with petrological, mineralogical, geochemical and other geological data. Only with such an integrated approach to the study of the Upper mantle of the Earth can produce reliable results.
The central place among the geophysical methods of exploration of the Upper mantle of the Earth occupies a Structural seismology. One of the main reasons that the seismic data developed for well-established technologies for the extraction of information about the internal structure of the upper mantle of the Earth from the observed seismic data. These technologies can be grouped under the title “Seismic tomography”.